Nueva Ecija is the largest province and the biggest rice producer of Central Luzon and often referred to as the Rice Bowl of the Philippines. One of its attractions is the Pantabangan River, the country's first multi-purpose infrastructure, stands today as the phenomenon in Filipino engineering feats. Cutting across a rich valley floor, the Pampanga river is famed for irrigation, generation of hydroelectric power and mitigation of flood damage. Nueva Ecija is also declared by the tourism department as the agri-tourism pilot site in Luzon due to the presence of Central Luzon State University. Nueva Ecija also possesses other worthwhile attractions: Minalungao National Park, Rizal Hot Spring, Burburayok Springs and Pajanutic Falls, Barrio Puncan in the town of Carranglan and others.
In 1705, Spanish Governor General Fausto Cruzar created the province and named it Nueva Ecija after his hometown Ecija in Seville, Spain. In 1818, Nueva Ecija annexed a long strip of territory facing the Pacific Ocean in the east that extended from Palanan (now in Isabela) in the north to Infanta in Tayabas (now Quezon) in the south. In 1848, it acquired the towns of Gapan, San Isidro, Cabiao, San Antonio and Casiguran were separated from Nueva Ecija and annexed to Tayabas. Palanan was transferred first to Nueva Ecija then Isabela. With the subsequent separation of Infanta and Polilio Island, Nueva Ecija's isolation from the sea became complete. Nueva Ecija was one of the first eight provinces that took up arms against the Spanish rule in 1896. During the Filipino-American War, General Emilio Aguinaldo retreated there and on May 9, 1899 made Cabanatuan the temporary seat of his government until this was moved to Bamban, Tarlac. General Antonio Luna was killed on June 5, 1899, in the convent of the town's church. American forces, after occupying Nueva Ecija in 1899, established the provincial seat of government in San Isidro (other capitals are Baler, now in Aurora, Bongabon, and Cabanatuan.). On June 19,1965, Republic Act No. 4475 created the city of Palayan as the new capital.
Nueva Ecija has two (2) pronounced seasons - dry during the months of November to April and wet the rest of the year.
Pantabangan Dam Central Luzon State University Minalungao National Park Historic Barrio Labi Diamond Park Camp Pangatian Taong Putik Festival of Aliaga Philrice Agricultural Museum (CLSU) Living Fish Museum (CLSU)The province is the largest in Central Luzon. Its terrain begins with the southwestern marshes near the Pampanga border. It levels off, and then gradually increases in elevation to rolling hills as it approaches the mountains of Sierra Madre in the east, and the Caraballo and Cordillera ranges in the north.
Buses that go to the Cagayan Valley pass through Cabanatuan City and San Jose, which are along the Pan Philippine Highway. Buses that go to Aurora and Bongabon pass through the same route before climbing the Sierra Madre. Baliwag Transit in Cubao has buses that travel specifically to and from Nueva Ecija, particularly CabanatuanTagalog is predominantly spoken by the Novo Ecijanos which comprise 67.7% followed by the Ilocanos 29.93% and other dialects like Pampango, Pangasinan, Bicol, Ilonggo, etc. in small percentageNueva Ecija is one of the top producers of agricultural goods in the country. The principal crops are rice, corn, and onion. The province is often referred to as the Rice Bowl of the Philippines. Other major crops grown here include mango, banana, eggplant and garlic. Fishponds are unevenly distributed throughout the province but the largest concentration is in San Antonio, Sta. Rosa, and Cuyapo. Several areas have mineral deposits. Copper and manganese have been found in Gen. Tinio, Carranglan and Pantabangan. The upper reaches of Carranglan and Palayan are said to contain goldThe province is divided into four (4) congressional districts, which consists of twenty eight (28) municipalities and four (4) cities. The provincial capital is Palayan City. The four cities are: Cabanatuan, San Jose, Palayan and Science City of Munoz